The world was born thanks to the media or the Internet

At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st, the possibility of ordering and shipping clothing items to any part of the world was born thanks to the media or the Internet. Consequently, current fashion seems to be heading towards universal uniformity.

2000s
Throughout the 2000s, the concept of urban tribes took hold . These directly influenced the ways of dressing, mainly due to the increasing exposure to mass media such as the Internet. Although subcultures already exist since the 1960s and 1970s, such as Beatnik and Hippies , some do not adopt the countercultural feeling that gave rise to them, being only identifiable by their way computer coding for kids of dressing, for example, emo culture . Both men and women adopt the tracksuit for almost every type of occasion. Women wear high- waisted shorts , skirts, miniskirts, and pants, and some garments from the 1980s are reincorporated, returning the flowered pattern. As for footwear, women wear sturdy boots, clogs or sandals.

2010s
Men introduce the V-neckline along with skinny pants and designer sneakers in their wardrobe. Light pants, although on the other hand, dark pants provide great elegance, as well as open shirts with undershirts and rolled up sleeves. Women prefer fresh fashion but with a modern touch, little makeup and natural hair with structured hairstyles, incorporating details of the fashion of the 1960s. Vintage has a strong presence in the feminine wardrobe. On the other hand, in men’s clothing an alternative fashion that seeks identity begins to grow, in which trends and own tastes influence, giving rise to a style a little more risky and fun.

The impact of the media
The mass consumer society began to play a central role at the time when fashion began to be understood as the need to make a distinction between each individual, of which Pierre Bourdieu and Jean Baudrillard spoke . 8 Fashion is part of our context as people, it influences different aspects of our lives, from what we eat and drink to the places we should go to. Currently, the simple act of dressing brings with it factors as diverse as self-esteem, security, aesthetic experience, consumption and imitation practices or the desire for inclusion. It should never be forgotten that all fashions are dangerous from the moment they become extreme.

The mass media are and have been an important tool in the field of information and in its dissemination, 10 since they can reach any part of the world in a very short time due to the globalization process . They are creators of a new culture and global reorganization of the market, generating millions of income worldwide and having such an influence in contemporary society that few computer coding for kids equal the power that has been conferred on them. Fashion is strongly linked to these media and is controlled by them, as they contribute to socialization processes.

We live in the age of communication: the media make us accomplices of information of all kinds and are in charge of teaching us to model the perceptions we have of reality. These media bombard the entire population, although their target is mainly adolescents and young adults, with series, television commercials, programs, reality shows, social networks such as Instagram and Facebook, magazines or music, among others. All of this leads us to a new multicultural individualism. The impact of social networks and technology among young people, based on the sociological concepts of group and primary relationships, generate a need for identity among young people.

The influence of brands
Fashion and clothing have a complex relationship with identity: the clothes we choose to wear can be a way of expressing who we are, giving details about our gender, class or position, for example.

The new generation of consumers do not passively accept the stories of the brands that companies tell, but are joint creators of their meaning. For marketers, this means that the old trick of screaming how great the brand or use of it is no longer works. Today it is crucial to listen to young consumers and understand how brands fit into their lifestyle.

In their Talk Track surveys of more than 2,000 US teens ages 13-17, the Keller Fay group found that young people have an average of 145 conversations a week about brands.

Of course, each country or region has its preferred local brands. Topshop dominates the industry in the UK, Zara triumphs in Spain and G-Star in the Netherlands; But overall, it’s H&M that achieves the most international success in the Gen Y market . 13

Color as an important part
It is known that there is a strong compatibility between emotions, fashion consumption and color, whatever the cultural roots or the different types of population analyzed; that is, color shows correspondence in terms of its meaning and is associated with emotions. In addition, from the analysis of the surveys carried out in a single region, a strong tendency to obey color preferences is shown both in making entry decisions in consumer establishments and in the event of the purchase itself; with conclusive and definitive results for the most part, which allows us to infer that consumption is affected by color and that the consumer can be influenced to such an extent that they give up consuming an object because they cannot find their favorite hue.

The link of color with fashion consumption is not consistent and generates conflicts with respect to the meanings of color, but it is concluded that as a result of the effects of color on the emotions of individuals, the object must contemplate trends and color ranges of color from a design perspective in order to cover as many individuals as possible. 14

Identity search
Fashion and brands not only embrace the desire to imitate other people or a certain community, but to express individuality; that is, although clothing indicates our affiliation to specific communities and expresses shared values, ideas and lifestyles, we do not want to be “clones” dressed identically to the members of that community. The clothing we choose to wear computer coding for kids represents a compromise between the demands of the social world, the environment to which we belong and our individual desires.

A successful fashion captures the emerging “mood” or “taste.” Fashion, as discourse and as practice, embodies the body, making it social and identifiable and explains how this construction of the body through clothing is of considerable importance for the development of modern society. 12

Throughout history, different cultures, cities and social groups have used clothing belonging to fashion as a support to make a public manifestation of their symbolic particular universe, that is, their ideologies, creeds, emotional culture, traditions, etc .; as well as as a communicative element to inform about the group that creates it. «Also, individuals, taken in terms of personal identity, perceive that“ the dress speaks ”and fulfills a socializing function in that what we wear contributes to the process of creating our image, understood in terms, not what we really wear. we are, but how others perceive us. “

Thus, fashion has become the cultural expression of tastes, lifestyles or personal identity, in other words, a metaculture capable of expanding with the help of social communication media, which through advertising and marketing , segment the market and address the masses in a personalized way; exploiting the role of acquisition and construction of the personality expressed through consumer objects that become an extension of who we are, due to the meaning given to them in the media, be it inherited, traditional or emerging. “Fashion would serve as an effective counterweight to stimulate the personal entity and with it our condition of persons” Glover, 2017.

New challenges in fashion
Today, the fashion industry is being questioned due to its production process and consumption.

Some fashion brands have been denounced for not offering decent working conditions to their workers.
Many production processes are not friendly to the environment and only take into consideration satisfying the changing demand of consumers. In this matter there is a great task to be done; It must be considered that the new generations are increasingly fluctuating with their tastes. Social networks provide a lot of information from all corners of the world, which also causes new trends to spread, become widespread and become obsolete more quickly.
Currently some brands and fashion lovers have highlighted the value of used clothing and have preferred to modify their own garments or those of others according to the styles that are worn, contributing to the recycling of garments.
Throughout the history of fashion, a distorted image of beauty, the body and women has spread. Little by little, great fashion brands have emerged that through their campaigns have shown that there is no perfect body shape or size, nor is there a perfect race, skin color, or weight.

Fashion and styles through different ages of time

In the Italian Renaissance, it was customary for the male gender to wear a short cape without a hood, a mortarboard, a hat with feathers and shoes with a blunt and wide tip. The women, on the other hand, wore bullets and slashes on the sleeves, and a curly ruff; in addition to skirts and overskirts, doublets and bodices, rozagantes capes or cloaks and a cap for the head.

From the second half of the century, the growing importance of the Spanish monarchy imposed on Europe the style of the court of Emperor Carlos I of Spain, a style of great sobriety, characterized by the use of dark colors and tight garments, without wrinkles no folds and rigid appearance, especially in women, in whom the use of the executioner is imposed. At the top programing for kids edge of the shirt a cord was placed that will give rise to the ruff or lechuguilla.

17th century
During this time French fashion dominates, both in men and women. Short pants were used with silk stockings, a jacket and a jacket that, by the middle of the century, became more reduced and with side pleats back and narrow sleeves.

With the fall of the French dynasty, the simple dress returns and they wear tight-fitting pants up to mid-calf, waistcoat, tie and jacket, high-necked and flared skirts, powdered wigs topped by a bow, and even hats with three or two spikes. .

After the revolution, the hair is left long and straight, they wear conical or tube high top hats, with short brims and later shoes with colored heels to which are added bows or buckles and high boots with turns. The woman wears wide, flattened painers or verduados on both fronts, corseted bodice and neckline with chiffon or lace, polonaises, gowns with lace collar and long sleeves. The French costume consists of a pointed bodice, dented sleeves, straight and open skirts, which are draped with a stowaway and long train, turned-down collar, and elbow-length sleeves with ruffles. Along with the revolution, the flight of the skirt disappears and classic clothing is imitated: high waisted, short jacket with long sleeves, pleated skirt, large necklines, long shawls and gloves. Regarding the hairstyle, this is back with curls that are later made higher and voluminous with ringlets, bows and feathers, bonnets and wide-brimmed hats. The type of footwear is usually shoes with high heels and a pointed toe, although later they began to wear the low ones.

18th century
In the 18th century, French coats and sweaters stand out as men’s garments, that is, coats of a lower class and somewhat narrow, jackets, tight knee-length breeches, ties instead of ruffles, wigs and large hats. . Meanwhile, women’s clothing continues the same style as in the last century and the use of head mantillas is adopted. They also wore long dresses, large hats and especially in high society, women were characterized by wearing a corset, which was a way to show their height. They also wore rings, and sometimes long gloves or necklaces, among others.

XIX century
During this century the tailcoat, frock coat and trousers were typical for men, and the silk mantilla and combs for ladies in Spain.

Once completed the Napoleonic era, from 1800 4 until 1820, the in which the female figure showed slender waist and always high, tight just below the chest, leaving the rest of the garment fall straight on the body; There was a drastic change in Romanticism, giving way to the corset , which gave the waist the shape of an hourglass and the crinoline , which hollowed out wide skirts and reached its peak in 1860 , causing the ladies to be unable to stroll from programing for kids the arm of your husband or fiancé. In 1870, it was replaced by the bustle, which only hollowed out the skirt from behind and went out of fashion in 1890, then the garment fell to the ground without any frame, although until 1900 the skirts were a little flared.

Between 1820 and 1914, there was a clear distinction in Western women’s wardrobe between day dresses, always with long sleeves, although they could be up to the elbow in summer, and closed up to the neck; and evening dresses, always short sleeves and very low-cut.

Fashion design from 1909
The fashion of the twentieth century begins in the year 1900 with the so-called S silhouette , known in this way due to the corset that pushed the breasts up, narrowed the waist and the skirts fitted to the hips, which widened in the shape of a bell when reaching the ground. In the world of work, tailored suits and cuts with masculine influence are beginning to be incorporated for women. The dresses were still long, even covering the shoes. Feathers and lace were all the rage; The large hats stood out, with an infinity of adornments and ornaments. This fashion was followed mainly by the upper and middle classes. In 1908, the silhouette became much straighter, without marking the waist so much, and there was a wave ofOrientalism thanks to the designs of Paul Poiret and the Russian ballets .

1910s
In this decade two periods are distinguished. The first, from 1905 until the beginning of the First World War , characterized by being the appendix of the ornate fashion of the Belle Époque, as well as the appearance of a silhouette that tends towards verticality in women and orientalism. Straight and long corsets and skirts with little flight accompanied by an overskirt are becoming fashionable, in addition, day skirts are shortened to the ankles, exposing the shoes. The second, throughout the conflict, is characterized by the appearance of much more comfortable fashions for women: skirts continue to be shortened to almost mid-calf and the bodies follow the natural line of the body, without a corset. This was due to the need for women to make up for the lack of labor in the jobs previously held by men. Because of this comfort in clothing, the androgynous fashion of the 1920s was born later .

Norma Talmadge , flapper prototype
In the 1920s , clothing began to have a much more practical purpose. The silhouette changes again, lowering the waist to mark it at the hips. The jacket suit is popularized as street wear and for the parties dresses with large necklines in the back as well as long fur coats were chosen. The short skirts to the knee and the sober and closed hats stand out —close up—, in addition, women cut their hair short for the first time.

During this decade, ladies swapped their white look for the natural-looking pink face powder, created by Polish cosmetologist Helena Rubinstein . The 1920s were one of the most revolutionary periods of the 20th century in this sense, as women adopted the custom of putting on makeup, keeping powder and lipstick in programing for kids their purse for touch-ups. Until that moment, the only ones who wore makeup were the artists and prostitutes. Young women uncovered and began drinking and smoking in public as a way to provoke the rigid status that reigned at the turn of the century.

The most fashionable girls painted their lips red, sported short hair and eyes painted in dark shadows, and used to dance jazz until dawn. This was probably the most daring and transgressive decade. It was a time of change that affected all cultural aspects and had a strong impact on fashion.

1930s
Optimism ended with the stock market crash in October 1929, which caused a serious global economic crisis for the next several years. In 1930, the waist was again marked in its natural place and the skirts were lengthened to below the knee. Femininity returned, the ornaments in garments, the hats and the hair abandoned the garçon style for slightly longer hairstyles with waves. Starting in 1935, the shoulders are usually marked, giving the silhouette an inverted triangle appearance.

From 1940 to 1945
During the Second World War , fashion was defined as austere and simple: the look was militarized and the fabrics became poor due to the lack of materials. Consequently, the women wore city uniforms, that is, jacket suits. The length of the skirts continued below the knees, but the shortage of materials was so great that laws were imposed that regulated this length. Given its cost, not all women could afford stockings . Panties became popular, cork topolino shoes and very simple hats were used or simply scarves on the head.

Decades of 1945 and 1950
The first postwar years brought women back home, to housework, and to thinking about themselves again. After years of anguish, worries and a lot of work, the woman was able to live in the tranquility of her home, give herself little tastes and be flirtatious. The world was leaving a stage behind and fashion did too. Since then, the woman returned to worry about her beauty, her aesthetics and her clothing. That is why the fashion of the 50s stands out for the return of splendor.

In 1947, after the triumph of Christian Dior’s new look, the hourglass silhouette became popular: a narrow waist with voluminous curves. To exaggerate this silhouette, cone-shaped bras and fitted corsets were used. The flight of the skirts was increased, whose length continued below the knees. The woman wanted frivolity and craved feminine clothing that did not look like a civilian version of military uniforms. She wanted to be sensual again, but without being very provocative; curves thus became the new symbol of feminine beauty. She had to always be correctly made up, and the programing for kids use of accessories such as stiletto shoes, gloves, headdresses, hats, bags to the elbow began to be highly valued … The most used fabrics were different types of silk and tulle. The main objective was to give a greater volume to the woman’s hips and to achieve a wasp waist.

The most notable designers of this time were Christian Dior , Coco Chanel , Cristóbal Balenciaga , Elsa Chiaparelli , Hubert de Givenchy , Jacques Fath, Nina Ricci and Pierre Cardin .

1960s
This decade stands out for the revolution. Comfortable and youthful clothing was used again, following the natural line of the body and leaving bourgeois luxury behind . The habitual use of hats and dress gloves is abandoned. From 1966, extravagant clothing, with a butterfly, flower, pop-art or ethnic print became fashionable . Silhouettes were once again smoother and the revolutionary thigh-length mini-skirts, which were born in London in 1965 by the hand of designer Mary Quant, quickly began to prevail among young women around the world .

1970s
In 1970 , teenagers had the ability to express themselves freely. Thus arose the concept of different, original, fun and extravagant clothing. Hair was worn short, long or with geometric cuts. Both men and women began to wear bell bottoms and cotton blouses, among others, prevailed.

It was a very diverse decade, in which there was a furore towards retro . Flowers were one of the main symbols, not only in clothing but also in hair, and represented the illusory ideology that led them to the so-called flower revolution . Suits and dresses stood out, which were worn with tight pants. Cotton was replaced by lycra , and they wore Swedish type high heels or boots.

1980s
Fashion brought considerable changes during these years. The new style was characterized by the use of visible underwear , either over a T-shirt , under a translucent T-shirt or visible lace straps. This new fashion was highly controversial, becoming a synonym of liberation for women , since in the past, wearing underwear in this way gave them the appearance of being an unkempt woman. Thanks to this trend, women can now wear comfortable tops without having to worry about see-throughs or bra straps .

1990s
This era was based on variety and not on a specific and enduring trend. There was a preference to dress in what made them feel more comfortable, without giving much importance to the opinion of others or trends, because it had been concluded that there was no true freedom. Music group t-shirts became popular, as did loose hair. One of the great innovations of this period was the appearance of the pins , tattoos and hair dyes.

A trend according to its duration

Fashion (from the French mode and from the Latin modus ‘mode, measure’) is a set of clothing, ornaments and accessories based on tastes, uses and customs that are used by a majority during a certain period of time and that they will set a computing for kids online trend according to its duration; although fashion also refers to something that is repeated many times, in this case, clothing.

Reviews
The intention of certain individuals to separate themselves from the dominant fashion trends generally creates a new trend because of its differentiating character. (Simmel).

The spread of a trend in fashion necessarily leads to its failure. All widely accepted fashion loses its appeal by ceasing to be a differentiator.

Thorstein Veblen and Bourdieu
In his work The Theory of the Leisure Class , Veblen relates how fashion is a tool that the upper class uses to differentiate itself from the rest of the classes, mainly the lower ones. The beauty and symbolism of leisure; related to being wealthy, sobriety and the efficiency of the garments of the lower and industrial classes, are confronted. Bourdieu calls this distinctive practices : the manifestation of class struggle, in this case symbolic, whose objective is to perpetuate the inequality between them.

The vertical diffusion of tastes is the mechanism by which, Veblen argues, fashion is transmitted from one class to another, since every class imitates the one immediately above it. Members belonging to a certain class can identify with each other by being on the same level and differentiate themselves from others by having a barrier that separates them.

The differentiated taste of each class is not inherent in its members. According to Bourdieu, it is the consequence of the socialization of individuals within the different classes, that is, their family, their school, their childhood friends, etc. This taste is learned from the context and internalized. The term new rich has a derogatory connotation, since it designates someone who, although he has just arrived, in economic terms, a new class, has not done so in symbolic terms; since he computing for kids online does not dress or behave in the same way, not because he does not have the will to do so but because he has socialized as someone poor, with mental schemes that allow him to process the reality that surrounds him for that specific class and not for another .

Theories on horizontal transmission
Simmel sees fashion as simply a tool that individuals use to free themselves from the anguish of choice, by being able to easily consider themselves a member of a group. Individuality demands a series of responsibilities that are diluted in the group and forces the subjects to defend themselves by their own forces (from symbolic attacks, it is understood). Fashion would be, in this case, a mechanism that responds to a social need and, therefore, an ultimate purpose cannot be sought for it.

The greater the difficulty of individuals to differentiate themselves, the more feverish is the symbolic distinction-imitation combat that takes place between different classes, requiring this, in turn, more changes that occur at a greater speed to satisfy this demand. And here, the production system responds with greater obsolescence . 3

Keynes and the beauty pageant
Keynes devised the metaphor of the beauty pageant to explain the functioning of the stock markets, but it also serves to explain the functioning of fashion from the perspective of horizontal transmission.

Imagine a contest in which we must choose from six faces the one we consider to be the most voted. If we are perceptive, we will realize that we should not choose according to our particular taste, nor the majority taste. Assuming the rest of the contestants are just as insightful as we are, we must choose the face based on what we think others will think. It is a game of I think that thinks that I think without end. The problem with it is that it is impossible to guess the outcome with certainty. Will others choose based on their individual taste? Of the average of particular tastes? Or will they choose with the strategies of other participants in mind? In short, all people, even if they do not know it, participate in a beauty contest.

A thing that through a sensory experience provides a sensation of pleasure or a feeling of satisfaction

Beauty is an abstract notion linked to many aspects of human existence. Beauty is studied within the philosophical discipline of aesthetics , in addition to other disciplines such as history , sociology, and social psychology . Commonly, beauty is defined as the characteristic of a thing that through a sensory experience ( perception ) provides a sensation of pleasure or a feeling of satisfaction . It comes from manifestations such as form , visual appearance , movement andsound , although it is also associated, to a lesser extent, with flavors and smells . Along these learn coding for kids lines and emphasizing the visual aspect, Tomás de Aquino defines the beautiful as that which pleases the eye ( quae visa placet ).

The perception of “beauty” often involves the interpretation of some entity that is in balance and harmony with nature , and can lead to feelings of attraction and emotional well-being. Because it is a subjective experience, it is often said that “beauty is in the eye of the beholder.” 1 Although such relativism is exaggerated and is usually associated with worldviews and fashions , the fact is that there are objects and beings that give the impression of beauty from their natural objectivity because they correspond to the natural requirements of homo sapiens , for example: taste sweet is preferred to bitter tastebecause bitter usually corresponds to poisons, just as the fragrance of many flowers is naturally preferred in psychically healthy people to putrid stench.

The Taj Mahal is an example of symmetry in architecture .
One of its mental qualities could be traced to the very existence of humanity. The Pythagorean school saw an important connection between mathematics and beauty. In particular, they noted that objects with symmetry are more striking. The classical Greek architecture is based on the image of symmetry and proportion. Plato made an abstraction of the concept and considered beauty an idea , independent of existence from beautiful things. According to the Platonic conception, beauty in the world is visible to everyone; however, such beauty is only a manifestation of true beauty, which resides in the souland to which we can only access if we go into their knowledge. Consequently, earthly beauty is the materialization of beauty as an idea, and every idea can be converted into earthly beauty through its representation.

Beauty has generally been associated with good . In the same way, the opposite of beauty, which is ugliness, has often been associated with evil . At witches , for example, often they are attributed physical traits unpleasant and repulsive personalities. This contrast is represented in stories like Sleeping Beauty , by Charles Perrault . 3 In his work Elective Affinities , Goethe states that human beauty acts with much greater force on interior senses learn coding for kids than on external ones, so that what he contemplates is free from evil and feels in harmony with him and with the world.

Symmetry is important because it gives the impression that the person grew up healthy, with no visible defects. Some researchers have suggested that neonatal traits are inherently attractive. Youth in general is associated with beauty.

There is evidence to suggest a beautiful face in child development, and that standards of attractiveness are similar in different cultures. Average, symmetry, and sexual dimorphism in determining beauty may have an evolutionary basis. The meta – analysis of empirical research indicate that the three attraction features produce both male and female faces and across different cultures. Facial attractiveness may be an adaptation for partner choice, possibly because symmetry and the absence of flaws point to important aspects of the partner’s physical quality, such as health. These preferences are likely simply instincts.

Greek and Roman artists also held the standard for male beauty in Western civilization. The ideal Roman was defined as a tall, muscular, long-legged chief with a chest full of thick hair, a high and broad forehead – a sign of intelligence – large eyes, a strong nose and perfect profile, a small mouth, and a powerful jaw. This combination of factors would produce a stunning look of beautiful masculinity. With the notable exceptions of body weight and fashion styles, the standards of beauty have been fairly constant in time and place.

In ancient Chinese a sign that means “beautiful” is written, but today it is combined with two other signs that mean “great” and “sheep”. Possibly, the large sheep was representative of beauty.

The Mayan culture considered that having strabismus was beautiful, and to achieve it, mothers put jugs in front of children so that they would grow up with this defect; the concept of beauty can vary between cultures.

Human beauty

Ideal proportions of the human body schematized in the Vitruvian Man , by Leonardo da Vinci .
The characterization of a person as “beautiful”, either individually or by community consensus, is often based on a combination of inner beauty , which includes psychological factors – such as congruence, elegance, charm, grace , integrity , intelligence and personality -, and external beauty , that is, physical attractiveness , which includes physical factors – such as youth, middle age, bodily health , sensuality and symmetry.

External beauty is commonly measured based on the general opinion or consensus of a group of people. An example of this are beauty pageants , such as Miss Universe . Internal beauty, however, is more difficult to quantify. An important indicator of physical beauty is “mediocrity.” When images of human faces are averaged to form a composite image, the composite image becomes progressively closer to the “ideal” image and is perceived as more attractive. This phenomenon was first noticed in 1883, when Francis Galton , Charles Darwin’s cousin, he built images composed by superimposing photographs of vegetarians and criminals in search learn coding for kids of a characteristic appearance for each of them. In doing so, he found that the resulting composite images were more attractive compared to any of the individual photographs.

Modern research also suggests that people whose facial features are symmetrical and have the perfect proportion are more attractive.

Ugliness
Main article: Ugliness
Ugliness is a property of a person or thing that is not pleasant to look at. In many societies the judgment of being considered “ugly” amounts to being unaesthetic, repulsive, or offensive. Like its opposite, beauty, ugliness involves subjective judgment and is, at least in part, in the “eye of the beholder”, nor should the influence exerted by the culture of the “beholder” be forgotten. Thus, the perception of ugliness can be wrong or myopic, as in the story of The Ugly Duckling by Hans Christian Andersen .

Despite the fact that ugliness is normally considered a visible characteristic, it can also be an internal attribute. For example, a person may be considered attractive on the outside but on the inside thoughtless and cruel. It is also possible to be in a “bad mood,” which is an internal state of temporary dislike.

Ugliness has its origin in the consideration of the “observing eye” and of the self-esteem that develops in people when seeing the stereotypes of men and women pleasant to our senses of perception.

The visual stimulus that provides such a sense of uniqueness that we think it should be immortalized in a painting

The picturesque is an aesthetic category that emerged in the 18th century in the United Kingdom , closely related to the Romantic movement . The term comes from the Italian word pittoresco , which means “similar to painting”, “in the manner of the painter”, wanting to express a property of objects, landscapes or any other element of the world of the senses that, due to their characteristics, qualities , beauty or uniqueness, it is worthy of being painted, of being coding for kids online represented in a work of art. The picturesque is that visual stimulus that provides such a sense of uniqueness that we think it should be immortalized in a painting.

Concept
As a word, picturesque was used for the first time by Giorgio Vasari in his Vite , where he uses the term “alla pittoresca” to mean an object that is capable of producing new effects in the pictorial field. In France , the term “genre pittoresque” was used to describe Rococo decoration . However, the current meaning and aesthetic meaning of the term emerged in Great Britain in the 18th century, in relation to the empiricist philosophical school and the incipient romanticism, and in parallel to the formulation of new aesthetic categories such as the sublime .

Joseph Addison in The Pleasures of the Imagination ( Pleasures of the Imagination , 1712), distinguished three main aesthetic qualities: beauty, grandeur (sublimity) and uniqueness (picturesque). In his work, he established imagination as the engine of the sublime and the picturesque, which is what conditions our interpretation of the surrounding world based primarily on the senses, but sifted by the mind, by our taste and our memories and education. For Addison, imagination is the source of the creative artistic impulse, rejecting the classical and academic principle of art as an imitation of reality, based on rules. At the base of the picturesque would be found the novelty, the uniqueness of an object that causes us admiration, a pleasant surprise, which produces curiosity, the desire to apprehend it, to know it better. The novelty brings strangeness, a fact by which we are attracted to both a beautiful object and an ugly or monstrous one, since its unique character awakens our attraction to it. Thus, Addison made an interpretationpsychological of the picturesque, since it is a quality that agitates our mind, that causes us new ideas or sensations. It is an impulse that starts from our sensitive perception to provoke emotions, feelings.

The aesthetic of the picturesque was developed by authors such as William Gilpin ( The Essays on the Picturesque , 1792 ), Uvedale Price ( An Essay on the Picturesque as Compared with the Sublime and the Beautiful , 1794 ) and Richard Payne Knight ( An Analytical Inquiry into the Principles of Taste , 1805). Price described the pleasures derived from the picturesque, which are produced by phenomena such as irregularity, variation or rudeness. Generally applied to nature, to the landscape, it is any natural vision that seduces the senses due to any of the qualities described, because it is irregular, because of its variety or because it is a wild, wild nature. These authors linked the coding for kids online perception of nature with the admiring and almost pantheistic feeling that nature had the romantics, for whom it was a source of evocation and intellectual stimulation, elaborating an idealized conception of nature, which they perceive in a mystical way , full of legends and memories, as seen in his predilection for ruins.

Thus, the picturesque can be defined as a type of artistic representation based on certain qualities such as singularity, irregularity, extravagance, originality or the funny or whimsical shape of certain objects, landscapes or things that can be represented pictorially. A scene can also be considered picturesque that draws attention due to strange qualities that make it striking, either because they express romantic themes or because they show idyllic or emotional scenes, generally linked to exotic or bucolic environments (scenes with shepherds , fishermen , gypsies, etc). The picturesque provokes associations of ideas of a whimsical and evocative nature, producing an aesthetic feeling between the relaxed and harmonious vision of beauty and the overwhelming grandeur of the sublime. The aesthetics of the picturesque influenced landscape painting , which would show a predilection for wild nature, for ruins, night or stormy environments, waterfalls, bridges over rivers, cabins in the forest, etc. The picturesque composition usually has a deep plane with dramatic contrasts, showing landscapes or groups of people covered with a remarkable artistic interest.

Regent’s Park ( London ), by John Nash .
The influence of the picturesque had a great relevance in gardening and landscape architecture , promoting the creation of complex plans where, together with an exuberant nature, a unique arrangement of architectural and ornamental elements was united, with a growing taste for the exotic and due to the historicist design : we can thus observe the location of such singular elements as classical pavilions , Chinese pagodas , Arab mosques , or a careful recreation of Greco-Roman or medieval ruins . The influence of oriental gardening was also received , as seen in the work A Dissertation on Oriental Gardening ( 1772 ), by Sir William Chambers , author of the Kew Gardens on the banks of the Thames . The picturesque garden was reflected in the extension of the Gardens of Versailles , by Gabriel Thouin . In England it ran parallel to the Neo – Palladian architecture in vogue at the time, with country villas such as Alexander Pope’s gardens at Twickenham , those of the Earl of Burlington at Chiswick , those of Lorraine influence fromStourhead House or Horace Walpole’s Palace on Strawberry Hill . The outstanding figure of this trend was John Nash , author of various constructions of eclectic style , and who adapted the new findings to urbanism , such as in the redevelopment of the West End of London ( 1811 – 1826 ), where he designed a large residential complex around to a large green area, Regent’s Park . Another important work of his was the Royal Pavilion of Brighton ( 1815 – 1823). Other English picturesque architects were William Kent , Lancelot “Capability” Brown , Humphry Repton , etc. In Germany , the work of Friedrich Ludwig Sckell , author of the English Garden in Munich , as well as Peter Joseph Lenné , who designed the Potsdam Park , stood out . In Italy , Giuseppe Jappelli , author of the Caffè Pedrocchi in Padua and the Villa Torlonia in Rome , stood out .

Fog and Snow in the Mountains, Seen through a Gothic Ruin ( 1826 ), by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre .
In the field of painting , the picturesque trend had a great impact on landscaping. In Great Britain, landscape painting had a great boom in the 18th century, paralleling architecture and gardening. In 1785 , Alexander Cozens published a treatise on landscape painting ( New method of advising inventiveness when drawing original landscape compositions) that collected the new contributions made in the field of aesthetics by empiricist philosophers. Cozens introduced the idea of ​​the “invention” of nature: instead of imitating it, the artist recreates an ideal notion of nature, which is the expressive medium of the artist’s emotionality. Influenced by Chinese painting, he produced works where, from ink stains coding for kids online on the canvas, he created a landscape of a fantastic nature. The most important landscapers of the late baroque were Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough : Reynolds, artist and art theorist, had a more classical line, influenced by Raphael and Van Dyck; Gainsborough frames the landscape in scenes of English social life, of great idealization and harmony. Other prominent artists were Richard Wilson and John Crome , as well as François Boucher , Jean-Honoré Fragonard and Hubert Robert in France, and Giovanni Paolo Pannini , Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni and Bernardo Bellotto in Italy, ascribed to the genre of “capriccio”, fantastic landscapes with ruins of influence Piranesian and vedutista . A certain picturesque air can also be glimpsed in the costumbrista scenes of the tapestry cartoons ofFrancisco de Goya , as well as the views of Luis Paret and Alcázar .

But the aesthetics of the picturesque had its maximum representation in romanticism: the romantic landscape synthesized the main characteristics of the picturesque genre, reflecting an idealized nature, sentimental and scenographic composition, which will pick up the fashion for historicism and eclecticism, as well as for the aesthetics of ruin. They are landscapes of intellectual elaboration, not of imitation of reality, where nature is the framework of a worldview where the author reflects his ideal conception of the world. Romantic landscapes are elaborate scenographies where nature is part of a complex design where, next to it, there are constructions and anecdotal elements, or the presence of small human figures that are immersed in the immensity of the natural setting. He highlighted the work of Joseph Mallord William Turner and John Constable , as well as Caspar David Friedrich , Ernst Ferdinand Oehme and Carl Blechen in Germany,Caspar Wolf in Switzerland , Claude-Joseph Vernet in France and Jenaro Pérez Villaamil in Spain .

The study of aesthetic experiences and aesthetic judgments in general

The aesthetics (from the Greek αἰσθητική [ aisthetikê ], ‘feeling’, ‘perception’ and east of [ aísthesis ], ‘sensation’, ‘sensitivity’, and -ικά [ ica ], ‘on’) is the branch of the philosophy that studies the essence and perception of beauty .

Some authors define aesthetics more broadly, such as the study of aesthetic experiences and aesthetic judgments in general, and not just those related to beauty. When we judge that something is beautiful, ugly, sublime or elegant (to give a few examples), we are making aesthetic judgments, which in turn express aesthetic experiences. 3 Aesthetics is the domain of philosophy, studying art and qualities such as beauty; Likewise, it is the study of these experiences and judgments that happen every day in the activities we carry out, producing computer coding for kids sensations and emotions, whether positive or negative in our person. Aesthetics seeks the why of some questions, for example, why some object, painting or sculpture is not attractive to viewers; therefore art is related to aesthetics as it seeks to generate sensations through an expression .

In another sense, aesthetics is the study of perception in general, be it sensory or understood more broadly. These research fields may coincide, although they are not necessarily the same.

Aesthetics studies the widest and vast histories of Elizabethan knowledge, as well as the different forms of art. Aesthetics, thus defined, is the field of philosophy that studies art and its qualities, such as beauty, the eminent, the ugly or dissonance. It is the branch of philosophy that studies the origin of pure feeling and its manifestation, which is art, it can be said that it is science whose primary object is reflection on the problems of art, aesthetics philosophically analyzes the values ​​that in it are contained.

Since in 1750 (in its first edition) and 1758 (second published edition) Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten used the word “aesthetics” as a ‘science of beauty, to which is added a study of the essence of art, of the relationships of this one with the beauty and the other values’ . Some authors have tried to replace it with another name: “calology”, which, according to its etymology, means science of the beautiful ( kalos , “beautiful”).

If aesthetics is the philosophical reflection on art, one of its problems will be the value that is contained in art; and although a varied number of sciences can deal with the work of art, only aesthetics philosophically analyzes the values ​​that are contained in it. On the other hand, philosophers like Mario Bunge consider that aesthetics is not a discipline. 4 In addition, Elena Oliveras, trained in both the philosophical and artistic fields, defines the concept of aesthetics as the mark of Modernity of her moment in history where her birth takes place, where the principle of subjectivity is inaugurated.

The Birth of Venus , by Sandro Botticelli , archetypal example of classical beauty.

The five senses , by Hans Makart .

The Vitruvian Man , by Leonardo da Vinci , study of the proportions in the human body.
The history of aesthetics is a discipline of the social sciences that studies the evolution of aesthetic ideas over time . Aesthetics is the branch of philosophy that is responsible for studying the way in which the human being interprets the sensory stimuli that he receives from the surrounding world, giving rise to sensitive knowledge, acquired through the senses. Among the various objects of study of aesthetics are beauty or judgments of taste, as well as the different ways of interpreting them by the human being. Therefore, aesthetics is closely computer coding for kids linked to art and to the study of the history of art , analyzing the various styles and artistic periods according to the various aesthetic components found in them. Aesthetics is often referred to as a “philosophy of art.”

The aesthetic term comes from the Greek αἴσθησις ( aísthêsis ), “sensation.” It was introduced by the German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten in his Philosophical Reflections on Poetry (1735), and later in his Aesthetica (1750). 8 Thus, the history of aesthetics, strictly speaking, would begin with Baumgarten in the 18th century , above all with the systematization of this discipline carried out by Immanuel Kant . However, the concept is applicable to studies on the subject carried out by previous philosophers, especially from Greececlassical. It should be noted, for example, that the ancient Greeks had a word comparable to the current concept of aesthetics, which was φιλοκαλία (philocalia), “love of beauty.” 9 It could be said that aesthetics as a concept was born in Greece, while with Baumgarten it became a branch of philosophy.

Aesthetics is a philosophical reflection that is done on artistic and natural objects, and that produces an “aesthetic judgment.” The sensory perception , once analyzed by human intelligence, produce ideas that are abstractions of the mind, which can be objective or subjective. These ideas provoke judgments, by relating sensory elements; in turn, the relationship of judgments is reasoning. The objective of aesthetics is to analyze the reasoning produced by said relationship of judgments. On the other hand, ideas evolve over time, adapting to the cultural currents of each era. Consequently, this evolution is also the object of study of the history of aesthetics.

The Wayfarer on the Sea of ​​Clouds , by Caspar David Friedrich , is a prototypical representation of the sublime .
Human beings have maintained and maintain diverse relationships with the world. Their attitude towards reality, the needs they try to satisfy and the way of satisfying them are also diverse in them. These relationships include:

The theoretical-cognitive relationship with which they approach reality to understand it.
The practical-productive relationship with which they materially intervene with nature and transform it, producing, with their work, objects that satisfy certain vital needs: feeding, dressing, taking shelter, defending themselves, communicating, transporting themselves, etc.
The practical-utilitarian relationship in which they use or consume those objects. The various relationships of the human being with the world do not develop in parallel throughout history. Their mutual connection, as well as the place they occupy or the level they reach within the social whole, vary according to certain historical and social conditions. These conditions also explain the main or subordinate role that a certain relationship plays; economic, political, religious, etc., in a time or society. Some relationships are more important than others in a certain historical-social phase.
Aesthetics in philosophy

Plato , quotes in Eggers Lan, Conrado: The sun, the line and the cave.
«—We also say that there is something Beautiful-in-itself and Good-in-itself […] and we call each one ‘that which is’».
Let’s read the following passage from Republic VI, 507b: […]“ —We also say that there is something Beautiful-in-itself and Good-in-itself and, similarly, regarding all those things that we postulated as multiples, we postulate them as being a unit, according to a single Idea, and we call each one ‘what it is’ ”».
Mateo Calle Vera: beauty: «[…] since beauty – be it an animal or any other thing composed of some – not only must have its parts in order but also with a determined magnitude and not by chance – because beauty consists of magnitude and order -, […] as in bodies and animals a magnitude is, without a doubt, necessary, more visible all of it at a time, in a similar way plots and arguments must have a magnitude such that it is easily retained by memory » .
Bonaventure of Fidanza : Itinerary from the mind to God
«Considering the proportionality in its concept of form, it is called beauty, beauty and delight do not exist without a certain proportion; and this primarily consists of number ».

The beautiful outside of oneself: it is everything that contains in itself the power to evoke in the understanding the idea of ​​relationships. Here the concept of Order is clearly seen.
The beautiful in relation to oneself: everything that provokes the previous idea. It has two ways: the real beauty, and the perceived beauty. There is no such thing as absolute beauty. It is not a sentimental matter: “The indeterminacy of these relationships, the ease of grasping them and the pleasure that accompanies their perception, are what computer coding for kids create the illusion that the beautiful was more of a sentimental than rational matter.” “Place beauty in the perception of relationships, and you will have the history of their progress from the birth of the world to the present day.”
«The soul has the power to unite the ideas that it has received separately, …».
Immanuel Kant : Critique of judgment : «To discern whether something is beautiful or not, we refer the representation, not by the understanding to the object with a view to knowledge, but by the imagination (perhaps linked to the understanding) to the subject and the feeling of pleasure or dislike experienced by it. ‘
The aesthetic: it is not based on concepts, it cannot be measured: «There can be no objective rule of taste that determines by concepts what is beautiful, since all judgment from this source is aesthetic, that is, its determining motive is the feeling of the subject and not a concept of the object. There is no science but criticism of the beautiful. Sensory sensation is incommunicable. Communication comes from the common (or ordinary) to all.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel : The beauty of form in nature is presented successively as: (1) Regularity; (2) symmetry and conformity; (3) harmony. Beauty is the idea of ​​beauty: «… quantity governs the determination of the purely external form, while on the contrary, quality determines what the thing in itself and in its inner essence, … the measure combines both ».
Arthur Schopenhauer : The world as will and representation . «Beauty consists, therefore, in the faithful and exact representation of the will in general, with the help of its phenomenon in space alone, while grace consists in the adequate representation of the will with the help of its phenomenon in time , … ».
Martin Heidegger : The origin of the work of art . Beauty rests in the form, but only because the form was lit one day from being as the entity of being. Form and content, is form and matter, the rational and the irrational, the subject and the object. Here form is interpreted as Order and Class of matter. Difference between art and beauty: the first belongs to Logic and the second to Aesthetics.
Bertrand Russell : It refers to the analysis of matter. raises several divisions of events: physical, and those that have different laws each in itself:
Fixed (those of “fixed movements”);
Rhythms (periodic processes);
Trans – actions (quanta transition in which energy passes from system);
Fixed with rhythms vs. laws of harmony.
Edmund Husserl : The Paris Conferences. The transcendental theory of perception consists of the intentional analysis of perception, the transcendental theory of memory and intuitions, the transcendental theory of judgment, the transcendental theory of the will, etc.
Different authors refer to the methodology of study of art and beauty. Here are contemporary authors and works (with the exception of Aristotle) ​​that study aesthetics and art, and a brushstroke of their ideology:

Nicolas Rashevsky : Progress and applications of mathematical biology.
Given neurophysiological models of the discrimination of afferent stimuli, a hypothetical brain model called “center of aesthetic sensation” is made. A mathematical analysis is developed in this regard, and multiple experimental laboratory results that are confirmatory are observed.

Omar Calabrese : The language of art. Jakobson tries to combine humanistic study with modern scientific theories, especially that of informational aesthetics. The mathematization of Aesthetics is presented as a form of expression.
Moles : Information Theory in aesthetic perception. Moles considers an exact aesthetic based on the mathematical aspects of information theory and cybernetics. It is understood here that the conception of the external world depends on the knowledge of our perceptual processes. This author works on visual and auditory messages. The aesthetic information you study is subject to the order of the probability of its encoding.
Bense : Aesthetica defines art as an intervention of intelligent beings on aesthetic situations, that is to say, that all physical reality supports an aesthetic reality founded on a communication process.
Nake : It has a precise and abstract definition of aesthetics that defines it in its two analytical and generative forms . Its pillars have been the semiotics of Peirce and Morris, the authors Shannon and Weaver in information theory, the cybernetics of Wiener, the Gestalt of Ehrenfels, and the impulse of mathematical aesthetics in Birkhoff.
Arnheim : Art and entropy. It takes into account the analytical theories of art based on the exact sciences (cybernetics, mathematics, theoretical physics and information theory). It points to a unifying way of theorizing all aspects of cultural life. Its fundamental formula is computer entropy, connecting in this way with the second principle of thermodynamics and framing a statistic of physical reality. Arnheim, to theorize the considerations of information to aesthetic activities, better study the concepts of entropic order and disorder, and verify their consequences in the notion of structure. The obvious consequence is that art escapes any attempt at “exact” foresight and regulation.
Umberto Eco : Shows how some applications of information theory to aesthetic objects can be resumed and included in the framework of a general semiotics.
Volli : The science of art. With similar contents to Eco’s work, it adds mathematical concepts to cybernetics. It recognizes an application to both cultural domains: the humanistic and the scientific. It does not try to encompass the scientific analyzes of art within a semiotics of art itself, but rather seeks an interdisciplinarity with cybernetics, information, linguistics and logic.

The phenomena of artistic creation and appreciation from a psychological perspective.

The psychology of art is the psychological field that studies the phenomena of artistic creation and appreciation from a psychological perspective. Contributions such as those of Gustav Fechner, Sigmund Freud , the Gestalt school (among which the works of Rudolph Arnheim stand out), Lev Vygotski and Howard Gardner have been transcendental for the development of this discipline .

In this article on Psychology of Art, on the one hand, we try to explain the difficulties of Psychology when it comes to approaching the production and understanding programing for kids of art; and on the other, it is intended to point out the directions followed by the latest research, which currently allows us to build a Psychology of Art.

Object of study
The objectives that it pursues link this branch of Psychology with many others that belong to the field of said discipline, and very particularly with those that refer to basic processes (such as perception , emotion and memory ) and the higher functions of thought. and language . However, these relationships are not limited to the area of ​​knowledge that concerns Basic Psychology, since the Psychology of art is also essentially related to areas such as Psychobiology , Psychopathology , personality studies, Evolutionary Psychologyor Social Psychology. Regarding the relationships that the Psychology of art maintains with other disciplines, the essential contributions of philosophy for the understanding of aesthetic phenomena must be highlighted , and the contribution of the History of Art is also of great importance, for example . The link between the Psychology of art with the aforementioned disciplines shows the need for interdisciplinary work.

The task that this discipline occupies is, therefore, highly complex. On the other hand, the Psychology of art is a new field in many countries.

The psychology of art tries to elaborate theories about both creative and perceptual activity, using the concepts and principles in use of scientific psychology. In English, the references that we can find are abundant; but in Spanish there is a smaller quantity of published works, being, in most of the cases, texts based on psychoanalysis .

Contributions such as Fechner , Sigmund Freud , Lev Vygotski , Howard Gardner and the Gestalt school have been of great importance for the development of this discipline , highlighting the works of Rudolph Arnheim .

One of the main questions that the Psychology of Art raises is whether individual taste is inconclusive enough to not allow its development. It is put as an example of a vision of taste as something not inconclusive, that individual taste is in many occasions determined by ethnic, social, economic or age issues, which make the more these issues are shared, the tastes coincide.

Art-therapy
Many psychotherapists have been able to verify the healing effects of art, individually and also in groups.

In art therapy the subjectivity of the person is released. It can be used for conflict resolution, emphasizing that it is an individual experience, but with the possibility of creating communication ties with peers.

Art-therapy is the generic name of an area that includes those psychotherapeutic practices that use artistic expression as mediation. It is based on a conception of art in force since the post-war period and which completely denies the myth of the artist as a genius. In fact, this area has had a great development in the second half of the last century and various areas of social services: educators, social workers, psychologists, etc., turn to artistic works and techniques today as elements that enrich those programing for kids resources oriented towards changing subjectivized behavior and social connections.

Background
This type of therapy has been working for several decades, through rehabilitation programs that use techniques such as writing, music, painting, etc. However, the incorporation of these techniques into hospitals has been both slow and difficult.

In 1962, the First Dynamic Expressive Therapy Workshop was held , a therapeutic experience with children through painting, coordinated by Fazakas, Y. and Martínez, Y. at the Psychiatric Clinic for Children and Adolescents of the Pereira Rossell Hospital.

In that same hospital, in 1974, a group of psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a group of children with expressive techniques was established, coordinated by Irrisarri, Y. and another parallel group of parents, coordinated by Fazakas, Y., who are still active. Sierra, M. and Casaravilla, G. coordinated one of these workshops between 1987 and 1989. This group of teaching-care work extends what was initially the Medical-Psychological Polyclinic of the Pedro Visca Hospital.

The AUPPE (Association of Psychology and Psychopathology of Expression) was founded in 1963, based on the work promoted by Carrasco, J .; Martínez, Y. and Fernández, M. since 1956, referring to psychic rehabilitation through expression. In 1990 the “First Days on Creativity” were held.

In 1991, “E-tche-pare” was created, a theater group made up of patients from Colonia Etchepare, directed by Gold, A., and which continues to operate under the coordination of Cabezas, A.

The systematic use of expressive techniques for prevention and health promotion has been rare. SaludArte (Foundation for Health Promotion through Art and Humor), founded and directed by Friedler, R. in 1999, is made up of artists and health professionals who use artistic mediation techniques (theater techniques, music therapy, arts plastic arts, oral narration, puppets, psychodrama, etc.) as a vehicle to mobilize the deployment of humor and imagination.

In the curricular spaces of the university training of the Psychologist, art has been present occasionally in some chairs and in the Space of Psychoanalysis and Literature created by R. Lubartowski in the Area of ​​Psychoanalysis from where activities have been carried out within the Faculty of Psychology and in coordination with the Faculty of Humanities and Education Sciences.

Artistic manifestations are increasingly integrated in many courses through cinema, literature, photography and theater.

The study of the relationship between Art and Psychology is based on the objectives of stimulating, investigating and experiencing creative processes. They are being used as a pedagogical device with which it is possible to generate resources that offer access to a great diversity of practices.

Human creativity is used to face and overcome pain, but also to extract from it a new way of creating. The aim is not to find new models, but rather to open paths towards the complex, without neglecting the essential aspect of life experience.

Professionalized psychologists in the area of ​​plastic arts can use creative production as a mediator in the therapeutic relationship, attending to questions related to the psyche, subjectivity, culture and society.

The professional activity of the art therapist psychologist, within the field of mental health, offers him the possibility of working in areas as diverse as psychosocial care, and providing help in all those problems related to the psyche, subjectivity, culture and society . It has been shown that artistic expression optimizes psychotherapeutic reach.

With art-therapy it is possible to relate the internal and the external, evoking and transforming the traumatic.

It is not about the creation of a new psychological cure, but rather an invitation to reflect on a way of working in mental health, which combines procedures circumscribed to certain types of art and mental health, creativity and psychology.

The psychological transitions would not be if it were not in relation to the socio-historical-cultural aspects.

Game and art
When comparing play with art, there are many elements that go into reaching a concrete conclusion. When we talk about games, we can do so by referring to one of the many types of games that exist. To differentiate one type of game from another, we can observe that some start from an external stimulus, but this one lacks a standardized programing for kids proposal to which it is necessary to respond with a specific technique and method, as it is for the stimuli proposed by the sets of rules.

Playing is common to all human beings. Artistic creativity is potentially latent in every human being, but whether it unfolds or not is different. This deployment will be due to very diverse issues, such as personal concern or cultural conditioning, for example.

The Psychology of art can be used within a wide therapeutic spectrum, as well as interdisciplinary as an educational, labor and health tool. It has been shown that art allows the development of the psychic, as well as the social, cultural diversity, etc.

If play and art are related, the renunciation of the pleasure that someone can extract from the game will be merely apparent. Regarding the subjective mental and the formal objective, the use of the playful-creative element linked to the psychotherapeutic relationship, all treated from the idea of ​​a potential intermediate space, in which the cultural experience is located, must propose art and play as elements that fit both subjective-mental and objective formal aspects.

And since playing is art, here two fundamental objectives are mixed from the psychological field of view; first, the cognitive aspect of the sense of art, that is, the socio-ulterior bases of the formal entity, which is known as a human being; and then the broad outer spectrum of the late horizon as “an uncreative person may be, in absolute terms, more creative than a creative cat” (Sigwer 1978).

Learning and art
As mentioned above, one of the branches in which the psychology of art contributes is education, since it encourages creativity and eliminates the paradigm that uses memory techniques as a basis for learning. The arts create an unconventional space within the classroom that allows analytical thinking; The subject builds his knowledge through playful exercises that help him to question and question his actions and that of others. This is how the receiver interacts and experiments so that the creative and artistic process results in a complete learning.

How to propose an adequate methodology with the use of the arts? In addition to identifying the artistic ability of the audience one is addressing, it is important to define the emotional, psychological and circumstantial profile of the subject or group with whom one works, so that the appropriate combination between art and play occurs. These variants influence the method and the tools to be used; just as music can be the release mechanism for a group of seniors, for a group of children it could be the means to express their tastes. A diverse audience means that focus and dynamics must always vary. Finally, the method must refer to a direct connection to the memory, motivating a space in which the main actor can make mistakes so that the connection with the artistic tool lasts.

Studies of art history in contemporary Italy

Systematic studies of art history began in 19th-century France with Antoine Chrysostome Quatremère de Quincy ( Dictionnaire historique d’architecture , 1832) and the historicist architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc himself ( Diccionnaire d’architecture , 1868, whose criteria on the neo – Gothic reconstruction of medieval monuments were those of a recreation rather than those of a respectful restoration, typical of the later conservationist sensibility); in addition to, in other areas, Jules Quicherat (1814-1882), Marcel Reymond , Séroux d’Agincourt , Jules Labarte ,Jules Renouvier and Louis Dimier (actively involved in computing for kids online politics with the extreme right-wing monarchists – Action Française -). From a current perspective, nineteenth-century French historiography is often accused of ethnitizing and building racial myths . Hippolyte Taine , influenced by Auguste Comte , was the first professor of art history at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

Art criticism, which had begun in the 18th century with the encyclopedist Denis Diderot , reached its maximum expression in the 19th century with Charles Baudelaire , who began with the criticism of the salons from 1845 to 1858, and published as extensive works Curiosités exthétiques and L’art romantique .

The corresponding sections have dealt with great authors of the 20th century, such as Pierre Francastel and Roland Barthes .

Umberto Eco .
Studies of art history in contemporary Italy
Adolfo Venturi began teaching the history of medieval and modern art in Rome in 1896. Among his disciples were Pietro Toesca , his son Lionello Venturi (one of those deprived of his chair for opposing fascism, and who continued his career in France and the United States), Roberto Longhi , Anna Maria Brizio , Edoardo Arslan , Geza de Francovich or Guglielmo Aurini .

Its section has dealt with Giulio Carlo Argan , who was a disciple of Lionelo Venturi, like most of the art historians of his generation: Cesare Brandi , Valentino Martinelli , Maurizio Calvesi , Nello Ponente , Enrico Crispolti , Eugenio Battisti , Luigi Grassi , etc.

The architect Leonardo Benevolo (b. 1923) has published some of the most popular treatises on the history of architecture.

The contribution to aesthetics and the history of art of the semiologist Umberto Eco has been very important ( Open work, The absent structure, Sign, History of beauty, History of ugliness ); as well as other developments of what has been called the theory of the sign ( Gillo Dorfles , The becoming of the arts -1959-, Symbol, communication and consumption -1962-; Corrado Maltese , Semiology of object language ; Renato de Fusco , Segni, storia progetto dell’architettura -1973-). 49

Studies of art history in Spain

Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando, in Madrid.
In the Spanish academic world, in addition to theoretical studies linked to artistic education (of a union structure since the Middle Ages and academic since the 18th century – Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando -), studies of art history have been solid to establish in the faculties of Philosophy and Letters or in the Faculties of History or History and Geography, as a university department , firstly as a specialty and in recent years more and more widely as a differentiated university degree .

The DICE ( Diffusion and Editorial Quality of the Spanish Humanities and Social and Legal Sciences Journals) index lists 25 records as History of Art and Fine Arts. General . 50 Dialnet lists 245 magazines in section Art (some already disappeared). 51

During a brief period prior to the civil war (1932-1936) Eduardo Westerdahl managed to establish in Tenerife a magazine of international prestige ( Gaceta de Arte ) connected with the artistic and cultural avant-garde (Surrealist Exhibition of Tenerife of 1935).

Eminent historians of art in Spain have been, among others, the Renaissance writers and Baroque Diego de Sagredo ( measures Romano , 1526, dialogue on the classical orders that warns of the dangers of Roman mix modern ), Cristóbal de Villalón ( Ingenious comparison between the old and the present , 1539), Felipe de Guevara ( Comments on the painting , written around 1560 and unpublished until 1788), Pablo de Céspedes ( Poem of Painting and Discourse on the comparison of ancient and modern painting and sculpture , 1604),José de Sigüenza ( History of the foundation of the El Escorial monastery , 1605), Vicente Carducho ( Dialogues of Painting , 1633, the first art history that computing for kids online includes Spanish Baroque painters), Francisco Pacheco ( Art of Painting, its antiquity y grandezas , 1649), Jusepe Martínez ( Practical discourses of the noble art of painting , unpublished until the 20th century, which collects the first historiography of Aragonese painting), Antonio Palomino ( the Spanish Vasari , author of Museo Pictórico y Escala Óptica y The picturesque Spanish Parnassus laureate, 1715, with great repercussion in Europe).

Main cloister of the monastery of Santa Engracia (Zaragoza), of the artistic and monumental Spain of Jenaro Pérez Villaamil. Lithographed in Paris by Alfred Guesdon , 1842.
Neoclassicism supposed the fixation of academic taste , expressed in the very influential work of Antonio Ponz ( Viage de España , 1772), which was followed by that of Isidoro Bosarte ( Artistic trip to various towns in Spain, with the judgment of the works of the Three Noble Arts that exist in them , 1804) and Juan Agustín Ceán Bermúdez ( Dictionary of the professors of fine arts in Spain -1800-, Summary of Roman antiquities that exist in Spain, especially those referring to Fine Arts – 1832-), which was completed in terms of architecture by Eugenio Llaguno y Amirola (Noticias de los Arquitectos y Arquitectura en España , 1829), and chronologically by the Additions of the Count of Viñaza (who claimed medieval artists ignored by Ceán’s neoclassicism), already at the end of the 19th century. Previously, romantic historiography had focused on an important newspaper work, which began with the painter Federico de Madrazo , artistic director of El Artista , whose literary part was directed by Eugenio de Ochoa ; ephemeral magazine (1835-36) whose trajectory was continued throughout the 19th century by others ( Semanario Pintoresco Español , El Museo Universal , La Ilustracion Española y Americana, El Arte en España and La Revista de Bellas Artes ), which fulfilled the function of giving space to historiographic articles by different authors and visual support: reproductions of works of art, which were sometimes published separately as series ( Spanish Iconography of Valentín Carderera , 1855 and 1864, and artistic and monumental Spain by Jenaro Pérez Villaamil with texts by Patricio de la Escosura ).

In the first third of the 20th century, during the silver age of Spanish science and letters , Spanish art historians correspond generationally with the concerns of the so-called generation of 98 , generation of 1914 and generation of 1927 : Manuel Bartolomé Cossío (one of the krausistas who began the pedagogical renewal of the Free Institution of Education , which published a major study on El Greco , 1908), Elias Tormo (the first professor of history of art, since 1911), 54 José Pijoan ( Summa Artis, 1927), Joaquín Folch y Torres , Manuel Gómez-Moreno , Francisco Javier Sánchez Cantón , the Marqués de Lozoya , Enrique Lafuente Ferrari , Diego Angulo Íñiguez etc. After the Spanish Civil War (1939) the activity of new generations of art historians developed: Fernando Chueca Goitia , Juan Antonio Gaya Nuño , Federico Sopeña , José Manuel Pita Andrade , Alfonso E. Pérez Sánchez , Valeriano Bozal , Fernando Marías Franco , Isidro Bango Torviso, Fernando Checa Cremades , etc.

In particular, the field of archeology has aroused the interest of a good number of prominent archaeologists since the 16th century, with Ambrosio de Morales’s inquiries on Complutum -Alcalá de Henares (1568) and Las Antigüedades de las ciudad de España (1575) , but which were made systematic from the 18th century: Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre (in Pompeya ), Antonio Tavira Almazán (in Segóbriga ), Enrique Flórez , Tomás Andrés de Gusseme , José Luis González de Velasco , José Ortiz and Sanz, etc.; and especially in the 19th centuries: Rogelio Inchaurrandieta y Páez , Gabriel Llabrés , Juan de Dios de la Rada , Juan Ramis , Rafael Mitjana , Basilio Sebastián Castellanos de Losada , José Pla , Eduardo Saavedra , Buenaventura Hernández-Sanahuja , José Amador de los Ríos , Juan Vilanova , Siret brothers – Luis Siret and Enrique Siret -, etc .; 55 and XX: Martín Almagro Basch , Antonio García and Bellido ,Antonio Blanco Freijeiro , etc. The controversial consideration of Palaeolithic art was a primary issue for the History of Art and that arose from Spain, with the disclosure of the works of Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola on the Altamira caves .

In the same way that the work of Spanish historians has not been limited to the study of Spanish art , it has been very common for foreign Hispanists to have been interested in its extraordinary richness, as in other historiographic disciplines ( Emil Hübner – Roman inscriptions -, George Edward Bonsor Saint Martin -Carmona, Los Alcores, Baelo Claudia-, Hugo Obermaier -cart paintings- Adolf Schulten -Tartessos-). Among the current ones, we can mention computing for kids online Jonathan Brown , who has starred in a recent controversy with Manuela Mena about the authorship of El Coloso, shows the vitality and permanent questioning of the historiography of art in Spain. 56 A key presence has been that of the Hispanic Society (which also publishes its own magazine: Notes of the Hispanic Society , since 1941).

Spanish artistic life, not only in its creative dimension, but in that of reflection and study with a historical perspective, is very active and geographically decentralized on all levels: the museum , fundamental for the conservation and study of all periods and genres of the art; and contemporary art , with great vitality for its promotion, criticism and study, through trade fairs ( ARCO ) and all kinds of programs, whether public (such as the historical one that allows the continuity of the presence of scholarship painters in the Spanish Academy of Rome since 1873), and the current art centers – Reina Sofía , IVAM , etc.-) 57Or they are private, and with the presence among these of both commercial galleries as a result of the private initiative, as well as cultural foundations initiative of large business groups ( Fundación MAPFRE , Caixaforum , Fundación BBVA ), among which stands out for the length of its trajectory the Juan March Foundation (1955). The foundations are not limited to modern art, such as the historic Carlos de Amberes Foundation (1594, renovated in 1992), the Thyssen (with broad collectors and exhibition criteria), the Santa María la Real Foundation (focused on the Palencia Romanesqueand led by the architect and draftsman Peridis ) or the “Las Adades del Hombre” Foundation (from the dioceses of Castilla y León, which holds temporary exhibitions in emblematic buildings with religious and artistic thematic criteria).

Spain, subject and object of the study of art history. Knowledge, appropriation and plunder.
TempelMadrid.jpgThe pilgrimage of San Isidro.jpg
The temple of Debod (on the left) was moved to Madrid as a result of the Spanish collaboration (Spanish Committee led by Martín Almagro) in the archaeological rescue simultaneous to the construction of the Aswan Dam (1960-1970), which initiated the modern Spanish Egyptology , of great projection up to the present time.

While for the powerful Hispanic Monarchy of the Old Regime the usual thing had been the acquisition of foreign art (especially in Flanders and Italy); Since the War of Independence (1808-14) 58 and coinciding with the coming of fashion in Spain ( romantic exoticism and Hispanicism ), a long period of looting of Spanish works of art begins 59For the benefit of French, English and American collections and museums, being dislocated from their original context and spread around the world. At least, they were saved from the deterioration or even the destruction to which they were probably condemned in the convulsed Spain of the 19th century (notably due to the Confiscation process ). The most spectacular cases were those of Murillo’s Immaculate “de Soult” and the Lady of Elche (the first requisitioned by the Napoleonic army and the second legally sold in France, both recovered by the Franco government before the Petain’s German government in 1941), Goya’s Black Paintings (torn from the walls of theQuinta del Sordo , like the Pilgrimage of San Isidro -image on the right-) and numerous Romanesque frescoes, like those of San Baudelio de Berlanga , legally sold; in other cases, the protagonists of the extraction were the Spanish museums themselves, notably the collection of Romanesque art of the National Museum of Art of Catalonia , formed from the campaigns of 1919 to 1932 of Joaquín Folch y Torres, as a reaction to the sales to foreigners. 60 The Spanish Civil War(1936-1939) had meant a large-scale destruction of the artistic and historical heritage, especially in the republican rearguard, which in some cases was intended to protect with drastic measures (transfer of the most important collections from the Prado Museum to Geneva, where exhibited in what can be considered one of the first temporary exhibitions ). 61The modifications of the legislation to restrict the legal exit of art from Spain, not accompanied by an effective physical protection of the artistic heritage, dispersed and sometimes in very precarious conditions of surveillance and conservation (churches of villages emptied by emigration, innumerable sites archaeological, archives and libraries are difficult to control), they turned the second half of the twentieth century at a time of intense art thefts (one of the most spectacular, that of the Cámara Santa -9 August 1977- 62 ), that it has been tried to alleviate with the concentration of the works in provincial and diocesan museums; which has not been enough to prevent some cases: each year there are between 200 and 250 theft of objectsNational Artistic Heritage (one of the most serious among the most recent, that of the Calixtino Codex , July 2011).

The study of Art and History with Psychoanalysis

Freud and psychoanalysis
Heinrich Wölfflin was not the only intellectual who invoked psychological theories in the study of art. The father of psychoanalysis himself , Sigmund Freud , had written a book on Leonardo da Vinci , in which he used Leonardo’s paintings to investigate the artist’s psyche and sexual orientation . Freud inferred from his analysis the probable homosexuality of Vinci’s.

The use of posthumous material to carry out psychoanalysis is a controversial issue among art historians, especially since sexual morality in the time of learn coding for kids the analyzer and the analysand is different; although it does not stop trying frequently. One of the best known authors of this trend is Laurie Schnieder Adams , with her manual Art Across Time , in addition to other books, such as Art and Psychoanalysis .

Jung and the archetypes
Carl Jung also applied psychoanalytic theory to art. He was a Swiss psychiatrist, influential thinker, who founded analytical psychology . His approach to psychology focused on the psyche through the exploration of the worlds of sleep, art, mythology, religion and philosophy. Most of his work was devoted to the exploration of Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, as well as the sociology of literature and art. His most notable contributions include the concepts of the archetype , the collective unconscious , and the theory of synchronicity . Jung believed that most experiences perceived as coincidencesThey were not due to mere chance , but rather suggested the manifestation of parallel facts or circumstances that reflected their determining dynamics. 33 He argued that a collective unconscious and archetypal imagery were detectable in art. His ideas were especially popular in American Abstract Expressionism in the 1940s and 1950s. 34 His work inspired the surrealist concept of extracting images from dreams and the unconscious.

Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He feared that modern humans were relying too much on science and logic, when they could benefit from integrating spirituality and an appreciation of the unconscious field. His work not only impacted the analytical work of art historians, but also became an integral part of the artists’ work. Jackson Pollock , for example, created a famous series of drawings to accompany his psychoanalytic sessions with Joseph L. Henderson , a Jungian psychoanalyst. Henderson later published the drawings in a work dedicated to his sessions with Pollock, evidencing the great potential of drawing as a therapeutic tool.

Pollock and Lacan
The imprint of psychoanalysis in the history of art has been deep and extends beyond Freud and Jung. The prominent feminist art historian Griselda Pollock , for example, derives from psychoanalysis both her reading of contemporary art and her rereading of modern art. His application of French feminist psychoanalysis , in particular of the work of Julia Kristeva and Bracha L. Ettinger , as well as the application by Rosalind Krauss of the work of Jacques Lacan and Jean-François Lyotard , or the curative rereading of the art of Catherine de Zegher have shaped a new conception of men and women in the history of art.

Marx and ideology
In the mid-twentieth century art historians engaged in a critical approach to social history . His goal was to show how art interacts with power structures in society. One of the methodologies they used was Marxism , in its aspect of historical materialism . The history of Marxist art tried to show how art is linked to specific social classes, how images contain information about the world of economics, and how they can be used ideologically to make the status quo seem natural .

Greenberg
One of the most prominent Marxist art historians was Clement Greenberg (1909-1994), who popularized his essay “Vanguardia y Kitsch” at the end of the 1930s, 36 in which he proposed that the avant-garde emerged as a defense of the aesthetic standard. facing the decline of taste that occurs with mass consumer society , and defines kitsch as the opposite of art . Greenberg later proposed learn coding for kids that the avant-garde and modernism were means of resisting the leveling of culture produced by capitalist propaganda . Greenberg appropriated the German word kitschto describe consumerism , although the negative connotations of the term have since changed, to come to connote a more affirmative notion of the materials that capitalist culture reuses or recycles. In later works Greenberg examined the formal properties of modern art.

Schapiro, Hauser and Clark
Meyer Schapiro (1904-1996) is one of the most influential Marxist art historians of the mid-20th century. Although he wrote about many periods and subjects, he is mostly remembered for his commentary on late medieval and early renaissance sculpture, where he sees evidence of the rise of capitalism and the decline of feudalism ( transition from feudalism to capitalism ).

Arnold Hauser (1892-1978) wrote the first manual of Marxist history of Western art: Social History of Literature and Art ( The Social History of Art ), which attempts to show how class consciousness is reflected in every artistic period . His work sparked controversy in the 1950s, largely because of his generalizations applied to entire eras, a strategy his detractors call vulgar Marxism .

TJ Clark (b. 1943), from a Marxist perspective, proposes to overcome such generalizations, providing examples with Marxist stories from various impressionist and realist artists, such as Gustave Courbet or Édouard Manet . His works focus strictly on the political and economic climate in which art is created.

Antal
The Hungarian Friedrich Antal (1887-1954, Florentine painting and its social environment , 1948), applied the methodology of Aby Warburg from a Marxist point of view. A disciple of Wölfflin and Max Dvorak, he participated in an intellectual group ( Sonntagskreis ) that included the philosopher Georg Lukács , the sociologist Karl Mannheim and the art historians Arnold Hauser and Johannes Wilde . After leading the socialization of art collections in the Hungarian communist revolution of 1919, he went to Germany and then to England, where he contacted Anthony Blunt . 37

Francastel and the School of Annales
Pierre Francastel (1900-1970) developed a sociology of art close to the historiographic methodology of the also French School of Annales .

Argan looks at the work of the sculptor Francesco Libonati .
The Italian professor Giulio Carlo Argan (1909-1992), who began his professional career under fascism (studies on Andrea Palladio , Sebastiano Serlio , medieval architecture and an art history manual widely disseminated in teaching), after World War II became the reference of the Italian left in aesthetic matters, standing out for its defense of modern art ( Henry Moore , 1948; Walter Gropius and the Bauhaus , 1951; La scultura di Picasso 1953; Pier Luigi Nervi, 1955) and his renewed consideration of previous periods under a very personal application of the iconological method ( Brunelleschi , 1955; Fra ‘Angelico , 1955; Botticelli , 1957; Borromini , 1952; L’architettura barocca in Italia , 1957; L’Europa delle capitali , 1964), including the revaluation of neoclassicism ( Canova ). From a Marxist perspective, he considers art (of any age) as the development of learn coding for kids matter produced by work. In the post-historical phase that opens after the development and exhaustion of modernity (later called postmodernity) understands current culture as a ” death of art .”

Artisanal technology has been replaced by industrial technology. If previously art had a directive mission providing its models to the industry; at present it is the industry that provides the models to art. If the art of the craft era and theocratic society was based on nature (or divinity), current art refers to life and social activity without distinction between subject and object. Destiny no longer depends on God but on productive and social dynamics. The way out or solution he proposes for art in danger of death is to understand it as something not finished, but as a project or model of action ( praxis ), exemplified in urban planning .

Nochlin and feminism
The test Linda Nochlin (n. 1931) “Why Have There Been no great women artists?” ( Why have there been no great female artists? ) Inaugurated feminist art history in the 1970s with great impact , and remains one of the most widely read about female artists. In it, she applies a feminist critical framework to show the systematic exclusion of women from art education. Griselda Pollock is another prominent feminist art historian, whose use of psychoanalytic theory has been described in the corresponding section.

Barthes and semiotics
As opposed to iconography, which seeks to identify meaning, semiotics is concerned with the way meaning is created. The connoted and denoted meanings, in the expression of Roland Barthes (1915-1980) are essential for this type of examination. The interpretation of any work of art depends on the identification of the denotative meaning ( denotation , the recognition of a visual sign) and the connotative meaning ( connotation , the instantaneous cultural associations that come along with the recognition). The main concern of the historian of art semiotics is to find ways to navigateby the connoted meaning and interpret it.

The semiotic history of art seeks to reveal the meaning or encoded meanings of an aesthetic object by examining its connection to a collective consciousness . 40 Art historians do not usually belong to any particular branch of semiotics, but they tend to construct an eclectic version of all of them that they incorporate into their analytical instruments. For example, Meyer Schapiro (already discussed in the Marxism section) uses Ferdinand de Saussure’s differential meaning in an effort to ‘read’ the signs that would exist within a system . 41According to Schapiro, to understand the meaning of the frontality of a concrete pictorial context, it must be differentiated from, or seen in relation to, alternative possibilities, such as a profile , or a three-quarter posture . Schapiro combined this method with the work of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) whose object , sign and interpretation provides a structure for his approach. Alex Potts demonstrates the application of Peirce’s concepts to visual representation by examining it in relation to the Mona Lisa, seeing this painting as something beyond its materiality to identify it with a sign. Then it is recognized as referring to an object outside learn coding for kids of itself, a woman (Mona Lisa). The image does not appear to denote religious significance and can therefore be assumed to be a portrait. This interpretation leads to a chain of possible interpretations: who was the model in relation to Leonardo da Vinci ? What meaning did it have for him? Or maybe it was an icon that represented all women? This chain of interpretation, or “unlimited semiosis”, has no end; the art historian’s job is to set boundaries to possible interpretations as well as to reveal new possibilities. 42

Semiotics operates under the theory that an Image can only be understood from the perspective of the observer . The artist is supplanted by the observer as a provider of meaning, even to the extent that an interpretation remains valid regardless of the fact that it was inconceivable to the creator of the artistic object. 42 Rosalind E. Krauss (n. 1941) explained this concept in his essay In the Name of Picasso(On behalf of Picasso). He denounced the monopoly of meaning by the artist, insisting that meaning can only come about after the work has been abstracted from its social and historical context. Only by recognizing this can meaning be opened to other interpretive possibilities, such as those of feminism or psychoanalysis .

In the United States, the most important organization in the history of art is the College Art Association . 44 Organizes an annual conference and publishes the Art Bulletin and Art Journal . Similar organizations exist in other parts of the world, as well as specialized ones (of architecture, of the Renaissance …). In the UK, the Association of Art Historians 45 is the main organization, publishing a magazine called Art History . Other journals in the Anglo-Saxon field are 46 the Burlington Magazine (1904), the Journal of the Warburg and Courtalaud Institute (iconology, 1937),Architectural Review (1926) Apollo (magazine) (collectibles and antiques, 1928); the Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago , Art in America (1913), Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (Illinois, 1942), and Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism (Cleveland, 1948).

The main magazines from other European countries are: in Italy Paragone Arte (1950, Roberto Longhi ), Critica d’arte (pure-visibilist orientation, 1950, L. Venturi and M. Salmi), Storia dell’arte ( Giulio Carlo Argan ) ; and the architectural Psicon (iconological, M. Fagiolo and E. Battisti) Controspazio (P. Portoghesi) and restricted to contemporary architecture Casabella and Domus (magazine) (semiological orientation, 1928). In France Gazette des Beaux Arts (1859) and Revue de l’art (1968). In German-speaking countries, the classic PrussianJahrbuch der Preussischen Kunstsamlungen (1880-1943) and its Viennese counterpart Jarbuch der Kunsthistorische Sammuungen des AH Kaiserhauses (1883), as well as the more recent Mitteilungen des Kunshistorisches Institutes in Florenz (specialized in Italian art, 1957) and Bibliographie zur Symbolik Ikonoologie (1968). Also noteworthy are the Dutch Oud Holland (1884) and the Belgian Bulletins de l ‘ Institut Royal du Patrimonie artistique (1958).

A true archaeological fever was unleashed

In the central decades of the enlightened eighteenth century , preceding the aesthetic triumph of neoclassicism , a true archaeological fever was unleashed ( Herculaneum 1711, Palatino de Rome 1729, Villa Adriana de Tivoli, 1734, Pompeii 1748); which particularly in England coincided with the Palladian fever and the beginning of the aristocratic custom of the Grand Tour . It was in this context that James Stuart and Nicholas Revett traveled to Greece , 1751 ( Antiquities of Athens , published in 1762) 22And the appearance of the works of Caylus ( Collection of Antiquities , 1750), Robert Wood ( Ruins of Palmyra , 1753 and Ruins of Balbek , 1757), William Chambers ( Designs of Chinese Buildings ), Robert Adam ( Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor diocletian at Spalato , 1764), etc.

A body of knowledge about ancient art was being decanted that went beyond the mere uncritical juxtaposition of earlier antiquarians . The generic idea of Antiquity was overcome in coding for kids online order to differentiate more and more correctly Greek from Roman art , the aesthetic precedence of one or the other being debated. These exchanges of information and opinions were shared by an enlightened elite of Italian art writers, who welcomed prominent Central European personalities: Francesco Milizia , Carlo Lodoli (1690-1761) and Francesco Algarotti (1712-1764), author of a fundamental work,Essay on architecture (1753). Coming from Bohemia , in the Habsburg territories of Vienna , Anton Raphael Mengs (1728-1779), painter and art theorist ( Reflections on Beauty and Taste in Painting , 1762), participated in this intellectual environment during his stay in Rome, from which he became a great diffuser both in the theory and in the practice of this new taste ; with great repercussion in Spain, where he made a good part of his work. The most decisive contribution of this entire Roman group was made by a Prussian : Winckelmann, Cardinal Albani’s librarian and a good friend of Mengs. 2.

Simultaneously, in the Parisian salons, the encyclopedist Denis Diderot played a role of similar importance in the foundation of artistic criticism from neoclassical presuppositions.

Portrait of Winckelmann, Anton von Maron , 1768.
Winckelmann and art criticism
Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) criticized Vasari’s cult of the artistic personality, arguing that the greatest emphasis should be on the point of view of the educated viewer rather than the charismatic artist. Winckelmann’s writings were the beginning of art criticism . He became famous for his criticism of the artistic excesses of the forms in the Baroque and Rococo , and his proposal for the reform of taste in favor of a more sober neoclassicism , in a return to elementary Renaissance thought. In his History of Art in Antiquity, he differentiates four periods: the “ancient” (which today we call archaic ), the “sublime” (classicism of the5th century BC C. ), the “beautiful” (classicism of the 4th century BC ) and the later “decadence” (what today we call Hellenism ). 24 The methodological novelty of Winckelmann was essentially his scientific claim, which makes him considered the starting point of the history of art.

Luigi Lanzi ( Storia pittoria dell’Italia del risorgimento delle belle arte fin preso le fine del XVII secolo , 1789) on the contrary, insisted on the individuality of artists, on the evolution of styles and schools, from an Italian proto-nationalist point of view . Scientifically raises the problem of attribution of the work to the artist.

Photograph of Burckhardt, 1892.
Jacob Burckhardt
The Swiss Jacob Burckhardt (1818 – 1897), another of the authors who can be considered as foundational figures in the history of art, with his essential work on The Culture of the Renaissance in Italy (1860), represented the continuity of Winckelmann’s approaches to throughout the 19th century. Burckhardt noted that Winckelmann was the first to distinguish between the periods of ancient art and to connect the history of the style with the history of the world . It is remarkable that, from Winckelmann to the 20th century, the academic field of art history was dominated by German-speaking personalities .

Monument to Goethe and Schiller in Weimar.
German romanticism and idealism
See also: German Idealism , Romanticism, and Pre- Romanticism .
Winckelmann was one of the favorite readings of Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Friedrich Schiller , prompting them both to write about art history. The description of the Laocoon by Goethe ( On Laocoon , 1798) was motivated by his desire to give an answer to the Laocoon or on the limits in painting and poetry by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1766, in turn inspired by Winckelmann’s treatment of him). sculpture in his History of Art in Antiquity of 1764, amazed by the fact that pain and death could be the subject of a beautiful work). Previously, the Englishman Edmund Burke had published hisPhilosophical inquiry into the origin of our ideas about the sublime and the beautiful (1756) where it fixes the concept of the sublime : what causes coding for kids online terror or concern, but attracts irresistibly; unlike the picturesque (another term fixed with a new aesthetic use in England in the eighteenth century) which is simply amazing, seductive and unique, inviting a pleasant contemplation . All this in a pre-romantic key, to justify the aesthetic enjoyment produced by the ruins, on the one hand, or the terrible spectacles of nature (storms, precipices), on the other.

The emergence of art as a major theme of philosophical speculation settled with the appearance of the Critique of the Judgment of Immanuel Kant in 1790, followed by Lectures on Aesthetics of Hegel (taught in his chair in Berlin since 1818 and collected after his death in 1831).

Rumohr and the Berlin School
Karl Friedrich von Rumohr ( Italienische Forschungen , 1827-1831) developed a historiography of art based on the critical study of primary sources investigated in the archive, in search of greater objectivity .

Hegelian philosophy served as a direct inspiration to the work of Karl Schnaase (1798 – 1875, Niederländische Briefe ) who established the theoretical foundations of the history of art as an autonomous discipline. His Geschichte der bildenden Künste , one of the first manuals in this discipline, covering from Antiquity to the Renaissance, facilitated its teaching in German-language universities. Around the same time a similar work by Franz Theodor Kugler (1808-1858) was published.

Schliemann, who carried out the excavations of Troy and Mycenae with a controversial criterion: the acceptance of the archaeological validity of what is recorded literarily in Greek myths.
Ruskin
The English polygraph John Ruskin (1819-1900, Modern Painters, by a Graduate of Oxford -1839-, Seven Lamps of Architecture -1849-) had one of his fundamental fields in aesthetics and art criticism. Although his approach to art was not essentially historiographical, he maintained the superiority of modern landscapers over the old masters, while in the field of architecture and decorative arts, on the contrary, he abhorred industrialization and the use of natural resources. new materials (especially cast iron decorative motifs) that he saw as a lieagainst the traditional honesty of traditional artisan knowledge, maintaining positions that, on the one hand, resemble conservatives and reactionaries and, on the other, were in line with some of the social criticisms of the utopian socialists , specifically preceding the proposals of William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement .

Archaeologists of the 19th century: the era of imperialism
Since the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt (1798) there has been a veritable looting of archaeological materials from all over the Middle East and Greece itself, which for the most part was channeled to the museums of the capitals of the main European powers ( Louvre , British Museum – Elgin marbles – and Berlin museums – Altes Museum , Pergamon Altar -, Munich – Glyptothek , Staatliche Antikensammlungen -, Vienna or, more modestly, the Madrid Archaeological ).

The professionalization of the romantic figure of the archaeologist ( Champollion , Ippolito Rosellini , Heinrich Schliemann , Robert Koldewey , Augustus Pitt Rivers , Flinders Petrie ; already in the twentieth century Arthur Evans , Howard Carter or Mortimer Wheeler ) led to the progressive establishment of adequate procedures of excavation and processing of information, which gave rise to a systematic archeology, jealous of its consideration coding for kids online as a science that aims to rigorously apply a scientific method ; and that was channeled institutionally through the creation ofarchaeological societies (since 1829 when Friedrich Wilhelm Eduard Gerhard created in Rome the Instituto di corrispondenza archeologica – Institut für archäologische Korrespondenz – Institute of archaeological correspondence).

Such institutions, reproduced at the national level in each country, were the equivalent of the scientific societies applied to the competitive demonstration of the national presence in other areas, such as the geographical area (they were sometimes explicitly called colonial societies ); 30 all of them framed in the race for the colonial division of the world of imperialism .

Photograph of Wölfflin contemplating a painting. Early 20th century (photographer, Rudolf Dührkoop , died 1918).
Wölfflin and stylistic analysis
Heinrich Wölfflin (1864-1945), who had studied with Burckhardt in Basel , is the father of modern art history. He taught at the universities of Berlin , Basel, Munich , and Zurich . Many of his students stood out for their later projection, such as Jakob Rosenberg and Frida Schottmuller . He introduced a scientific approach to the discipline, focusing it on three concepts. First, he tried to study art using psychology , particularly applying the work of Wilhelm Wundt . He argued, among other things, that art and architecture are goodif they resemble the human body. For example, houses are suitable if their facades look like faces. Second, he introduced the idea of ​​studying art with a comparative method . By comparing each painting with the others, he was able to make distinctions of style . His work Renaissance and Baroque developed this idea, and was the first to show these stylistic periods differentiated from each other. Unlike Giorgio Vasari , Wölfflin was not interested in artists’ biographies. In fact, he proposed a “history of art without names.” Finally, he studied art based on the idea of ​​nationality, schools and national styles. He was particularly interested in elucidating what was inherently Italian or German in Italian or German culture. This interest was articulated extensively in his monograph on the German artist Albrecht Dürer . In Fundamental Concepts of Art History (1915) he contrasts and defines classical aesthetics and baroque aesthetics, through a series of pairs of concepts (linear / pictorial, unit / multiplicity, etc.)

Engraved with the portrait of Wickhoff.
Thausing, Riegl, Wickhoff and the Vienna School
At the same time as Wölfflin’s career, the activity of an important school of thought on art history was developed at the University of Vienna , the Vienna School of Art History , which should not be confused with other intellectual groups from other fields that also receive the name of the Vienna School -economics- or Vienna Circle -philosophy of science-. The first generation of this Vienna School was dominated by Alois Riegl (1858-1905) and Franz Wickhoff (1853-1909), both disciples of Moritz Thausing(1838-1884), and was characterized by its tendency to rescue from oblivion despised or forgotten periods of art history. Riegl and Wickhoff both wrote extensively on the art of late antiquity , which before them had been regarded as a period of decline of the classical ideal. Riegl also contributed to the revaluation of the Baroque , and introduces the concept of Kunstwollen (will to art), seminal in many respects.

Second School of Vienna
The next generation of Viennese professors included Max Dvořák , Julius von Schlosser , Hans Tietze , Karl Maria Swoboda , and Josef Strzygowski (1862-1941). Many of the most important art historians of the 20th century, including Ernst Gombrich , were students in Vienna at that time. The expression “Second Vienna School” or “New Vienna School” is often used to refer to this group of teachers, in addition to Hans Sedlmayr , Otto Pächt and Guido Kaschnitz von Weinberg. These intellectuals began, around the 1930s, to revert to the work of the first generation, particularly Riegl and his concept of Kunstwollen , in an attempt to develop it into a complete and comprehensive methodology of art history. Sedlmayr in particular rejected the meticulous study of iconography, patronage, and other approaches that were grounded in historical context , preferring instead to focus on the aesthetic qualities of works of art. As a result, the Second Vienna School earned a reputation for unfettered and irresponsible formalism , to which, for the sake of abundance, was added outright racism.Sedlmayr and his membership in the Nazi party . This tendency was not shared by all members of the school: Pächt himself was Jewish, and he was forced to leave Vienna in the 1930s.

Aby Warburg c. 1900.
Warburg, Panofsky and iconology
The current understanding of the symbolic content of art comes from a group of intellectuals who grew up in Hamburg in the 1920s. Most prominent among them were Erwin Panofsky ( Studies in Iconology , 1939), Aby Warburg and Fritz Saxl . Together, and influenced by other intellectuals of the time, such as Ernst Cassirer , 31 they developed most of the vocabulary that continues to be used by historians of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. ” Iconography ” (from the Greek eikon – icon , image – and graphien – spelling, writing, description—) refers to the artistic matter derived from written sources , especially biblical or mythological . ” Iconology ” (with the suffix logos —discourse, treatise, science—) is a broader term that refers to all kinds of symbolism , whether it is derived from a specific text or not. Art historians do not agree on a precise use of both terms, and often use them interchangeably. According to Panofsky, the concrete study of works of art should consist of three successive analyzes : first, a pre-iconographic analysis.(where it is located in the period and style, according to its forms, in descriptive terms), secondly an iconographic analysis (where the elements that accompany the work, its different attributes or characteristics are analyzed, identifying the theme in relation to a text and the figurative elements in relation to their symbolic function), and finally an iconological analysis (where their conceptual or ideological meaning is studied in the cultural context of their time).

Panofsky, in his earliest work, also developed Riegl’s theories, although over time he became more concerned with iconography, and in particular with the transmission to the Middle Ages and the Renaissance of themes from classical antiquity. In this respect, his interests coincided with those of Warburg, the son of a wealthy family who had assembled an impressive library in Hamburg and had specialized in the continuity of the classical tradition in later art and culture. Under the auspices of Saxl, this library became a research institute linked to the University of Hamburg , where Panofsky taught.

Warburg died in 1929, and in the 1930s Saxl and Panofsky, both Jews, were forced into exile. Saxl settled in London, taking with him the Warburg Library and establishing the Warburg Institute . Panofsky did the same at Princeton , at the Institute for Advanced Study . Both they and the rest of the great number of German art historians who came to the Anglo-Saxon academic world around this time, reached an extraordinary influence in it, establishing the history of art as a legitimate field of study. Specifically, Panofsky’s methodology determined the course of art history in the United States for at least a generation.